Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision. [502] Women's volleyball clubs, namely Fenerbahçe, Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank, have won numerous European championship titles and medals. Restaurants near Le Cozy, Plaisir on Tripadvisor: Find traveler reviews and candid photos of dining near Le Cozy in Plaisir, France. [110][111] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020. The Turkish Five (Turkish: Türk Beşleri) is a name used by some authors to identify the five pioneers of Western classical music in Turkey, namely Ahmed Adnan Saygun, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Cemal Reşit Rey, Hasan Ferit Alnar and Necil Kazım Akses. [356] However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and approximately 70–80 per cent of the country's citizens identify themselves as Turkish. since 2004 have proven to be a highly controversial topic in Turkey. [216], In the 2016 Global Peace Index, Turkey ranked 145th out of 163 countries in the world, mainly because of its "increasingly strained relations with its neighbors", according to Forbes. Gregory Terlecki. [38] Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. [452], In 2016 the Skills Matter survey conducted by OECD found the levels of numeracy and literacy in the adult population of Turkey at rank 30 of the 33 OECD countries surveyed. [10][11] It is estimated that there are at least 47 ethnic groups represented in Turkey. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. [443] This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school. [446] Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study. [343] TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. I will order again. According to the Address-Based Population Recording System of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in 2011,[351] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. [264] The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests. [262] Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for humankind still grow in Turkey. [293] Turkey's gross external debt reached $453.2 billion at the end of December 2017. May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[274]. 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[353] The largest city in Turkey, Istanbul, is also the largest city in Europe by population, and the third-largest city in Europe in terms of size. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. [13] Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family:[32] and, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. [315], Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut";[316] and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. With an estimated nominal gross domestic product of $744 billion ($8,958 per capita) and $2.4 trillion ($28,264 p.c.) Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurdish and Zaza tribes, which were feudal (manorial) communities led by chieftains (agha) during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925)[92] and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938),[93] and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations. Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek, Armenian, Albanian, Polish and Jewish communities, among others.[471]. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[258]. [200], Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location. [335] According to Twitter's transparency report, Turkey is the global leader in social media censorship. H. Davison, Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774-1923 – The Impact of West, Texas 1990, pp. The words tasvir or nakış were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish. 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